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  • 2020年成人高考英语词汇易混淆的125个词
  • 时间:2021年04月17日  湘潭大学成人高考网
  •   2021年成人高考于10月23、24日举行,我们学习词汇时还应注意容易混淆的词。英语中有些词,词形和读音相近,但意义却不同;有些同义词,基本意义相同,但内涵的意义有很大差异。我们必须在广泛阅读的基础上,仔细观察每一个词在不同上下文中的含义和用法,从而学会正确使用它。


      1.able, capable, competent


      able为常用词,指具有做某事所需的力量,技巧,知识与时间等,一般下效率无关,用作定语表示能力超出平均水平。如:A cat is able to see in the dark. (猫在黑暗中能看见东西。)


      capable 指满足一般要求的能力,可以是表现出来的,也可是潜在的,搭配是be capable of +doing。用作定语,表示的能力没有able表示的能力强。如:He is capable of running a mile in a minute. (他能在一分钟内跑完一英里。)He is a very capable doctor. (他是一位很好的大夫。)


      competent 指“胜任”,“合格”,或受过专业技术等训练的,但不是超群的能力。如:A doctor should be competent to treat many diseases. (医生应该能治多种病。)


      2.aboard, abroad, board, broad


      aboard 在船(或飞机,车)上。如:I never went aboard a ship.


      abroad 副词,在国外或海外。如:He often goes abroad.


      board 为动词,上(船,飞机,车)。如:The passengers are boarding the plane now.


      broad 为形容词,宽广的。如:He has very broad shoulders.


      3.accept, receive


      accept 接受,receive“接到”,“收到”。如:I received an invitation yesterday, but I didn’t accept it. (昨天我收到了一个请柬,但并没有接受邀请。)


      4.accident, incident, event


      accident事故。如:a traffic accident (交通事故)


      incident“附带事件”,在政治上特指引起国际争端或战争的事件,事变。


      event “事件”,指特别重要的事件,通常是由以前的努力而产生的结果,也指国家和社会的事件。


      5. accomplish, complete, finish, achieve, attain


      accomplish表成功,强调完成的结果而不是过程。如:Because of his hard word, things are accomplished. (由于他的努力,事情都已完成了。)


      complete 表示积极的完成,更具体地指建筑、工程等的完成。如:Has he complete his novel yet? (他的小说写完了吗?)


      finish 最常用,后接动词的-ing形式,表示在一个活动的连续过程中完成了最后的一步或阶段。如:I’ll finish the job alone. (我要独自完成这项工作。)


      achieve 完成,实现,强调通过努力而达到目的。如:You will achieve success if you work hard.


      Attain达到,实现,常用于一般人的能力不易达到的目的。如:Greater efforts are needed before we can attain our goals.


      6.accurate, correct, exact, precise


      accurate准确的,精确的。如:Clocks in railway stations should be accurate.(火车站的钟应该是准确的。)


      correct“正确的”,指符合一定的标准或准则,含有“无错误的”意味。它的反义词是incorrect, wrong.


      exact“精确的”,“恰好的”,比“大体上正确”更进一步,表“丝毫不差”。它的反义词是inexact。


      precise强调“精确”,“精密”。


      7.accuse, charge, sue


      accuse 指责,指控,常与of 搭配。如:His boss accused him of carelessness.


      charge 常与with搭配。如:The police charged the driver with reckless driving.


      sue 常与for 搭配。如:Smith sued his neighbor for damaging his house.


      8.achieve, acquire, require, inquire


      achieve(成功地)完成,实现。如:He will never achieve anything unless he works harder. (如他不努力工作,将会一事无成。)


      acquire取得,获得,学到。如:acquire knowledge (获得知识)


      inquire打听,询问。如:inquire a person’s name(问一个人的姓名)


      require需要。如:We require more help. (我们需要更多的帮助。)


      9.act, action, deed


      act 用作名词时,与action, deed均可表“行为”,“举动”。Act指时间较短的个人行动或行为,强调结果。如:The farmer caught the boys in the act of stealing his apples. (农夫在孩子们正偷他的苹果时把他们抓住了。)


      action较正式,往往指不止包含一个步骤,且持续时间较长的行为或行动,强调行为的过程。如:Actions are more important than words. (行动比语言更重要。)


      deed为正式用语,多指伟大的,显著的,感人的行为。如:They thanked him for his good deeds. (他们感谢他做的好事。)


      10.actual, true, real, genuine


      actual 意为“实际的”,“现实的”,指所形容的事物在事实上已经发生或存在,而不是仅在理论上可能发生或存在的。


      true“真实的”,指与实际相符,而非虚假。


      genuine “真的”,“非冒充的”,“货真价实的”,强调正宗而非冒牌。


      11.adequate, enough, sufficient


      adequate 足够的,指数量多,适合需要的数量。


      enough足够的,指数量多,足够满足某种目的或愿望。


      sufficient同enough,常可互换使用。但sufficient指数量多,足够满足某种需要,在口语中常用enough,在书面语中常用sufficient,在不易肯定时多用enough。Enough可放在被修饰名词后,且可作副词,sufficient则不可这么用。


      12.admit, confess


      两者都表“承认”。


      admit指大胆地承认以前试图不论或推诿的坏事。如:John has admitted to breaking the window. (约翰已承认打破了窗玻璃。)


      Confess常指承认错误,罪行等。如:The thief confessed his crime to the police. (小偷向警察承认了罪行。)


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      13.advice,advise


      advice劝告(名词)。如:I want to give you some advice.


      advise劝告(动词)。如:What do you advise me to do?


      14.adopt, adapt


      adopt (1)收养。如:Since they have no children of their own, they decided to adopt a little girl. (他们自己没有孩子,所以决定收养一个小女孩。)(2)采纳,采用,通过。如:He adopted our suggestion.(他采纳了我们的建议。)


      adopt与adapt词形相近,后者的意思是“使适合”,“改编”等。


      15.advance, proceed, progress


      均可表“前进”。


      advance表向一个特定的目的地,在一定的时间或空间内稳定地向前运动。如:Napoleon’s army advanced on Moscow. (拿破仑的军队向莫斯科挺进。)


      proceed强调从一处向另一处的运动,常表停顿后继续前进。如:They proceeded from London to Paris. (他们从伦敦往巴黎前进。)


      peogress 多表自然过程,指生长,发展等稳定地或循环往复地前进。如:The year is progressing, it will soon be summer. (光阴似箭,很快又是夏天了。)


      16.advantage, benefit, profit


      advantage 常指一种使某人处于比其他人相对有利的地位,机会或时机。如:He had the advantage of good education. (受过良好的教育对他十分有利。)


      profit 多指报偿或报偿性的收入。如Did you make any profit last year? (你去年赚钱了吗?)


      benefit 指物质利益或精神方面的好处。如:I get no personal benefit from the business.(我个人从这家企业中并不获益。)


      17.advise, convince, persuade


       均可表“劝说”。


      advise表建议,规劝某人应该做某事或如何做。如:He advised me to put my money in the bank. (他劝我把钱存入银行。)


      convince指向某人陈述事实,运用推理或逻辑证明使某人信服。如:We convinced Smith to go by train rather than plane. (我们说服了史密斯乘火车而不乘飞机前往。)


      persuade指用感情说服某人去做某事。如:I persuaded him to go back to work. (我说服他回去工作了。)


      18.affect, effect


      affect影响(动词)。如Smoking affects health.


      effect效果,影响(名词)。如:Government policy will not have any effect on us.


      19.afford, provide, supply


      都有“提供,供给”的意思。


      afford一般只用于抽象事物。


      provide 和supply意思相同,两个词都和with连用,构成provide /supply somebody with something的结构。


      20.agree, consent


      agree 为常用词。如:Do you agree to the condition? (你同意这个条件吗?)


      consent为正式用词,多用于上下级的关系,表示同意别人的要求或请求。如:Did the king consent to your plan?(国王同意你的计划吗?)


           21.aid, help, assist


      用作动词均可表“帮助”。


      aid为正式用词,help最常用。


      assist最正式,表示协助某人做某事,尤指在体力上或具体事务上帮助和扶持。如:She employed a woman to assist her with the housework. (她雇了一名妇女帮她做家务。)


      22.alive, living, live


      alive 指虽有死的可能,但仍活着,一般只作表语。


      living可用于人或物,作定语时可前可后。


      live只做前置定语,用于动物和个别事物前。


      23.almost, nearly


      一般说来,almost比nearly 表示的意思更接近“开始”、“完成” (目标)等。


      在all, every, always 前,两者都可用。如:He is almost (nearly) smoking. (他几乎每天抽烟。)


      almost可同never, no, nobody, none, nothing 连用,而nearly却不能。如:Almost no one believed her. (几乎没人相信他。)


      24.alone, lonely


      alone只表“独自”的客观状态,没有感情色彩,只作表语;lonely表“孤独”,:“寂寞”,能作定语和表语。如:When she is left alone, she feels lonely. (剩下她一人时她就感到寂寞。)


      alone, only均可表“只有”,但alone须置于被修饰词之后,only往往置于被修饰词前。如:He alone (Only he) can remember the story. (只有他才能记起这段经历。)


      25.already, all ready


      already已经(副词)。如:The plane had already landed before we got to the airport.


      all ready准备好的(作表语)。如:We were all ready to leave when the telephone rang.


      26.alter, change


      作不及物动词时,两者可通用。


      作及物动词时,alter是对局部,表面的改变,而change则是对本质的,全面的,彻底的改变。如:Can you alter the dress? (你会改做这件衣服吗?)Can you change the dress?(你能给我更换这件衣服吗?)


      27.altogether, all together


      altogether总计,总共。如:Altogether there are six of us. (我们总计六人。)


      all together 全都在一起。如:We played the game all together. (我们大家都一起来玩游戏吧。)


      28.amaze, astonish, surprise


      都可作及物动词,意思相近,一般都是以事物作主语,人称作宾语。


      amaze强调“使惊讶”,有时还有“惊叹”,“佩服”等意。


      astonish表示“使大吃一惊”,“几乎使人无法相信”之意。


      surprise只表“出乎意料之外”。


      29.among, between


      among 在……中间(三者或三者以上之间)。如:Our house is hidden among trees.


      between在两者之间。如:It is easy to distinguish between a Japanese and a Chinese.


      30.announce, declare


      announce指宣布公众期望或与公众有关的事情,含有预告的意味。如:The government announced that they would pay their debts. (政府宣布将偿还债务。)


      declare指正式负责地宣布,声明,通常用于庄重的场合。如:The judge declared him guilty.(法官宣布他有罪。)


      31.annoy, bother, trouble, disturb

      annoy指外界的干扰令人讨厌或无法忍受,或指某人故意去妨碍别人。


      bother打扰,麻烦,指给人行动带来不便或身心上带来痛苦。如:May I trouble you with a few questions?


      disturb打扰,扰乱,指使正常秩序或一时的安定受到破坏,精力一时不能集中。如:I am sorry to disturb you.


      32.answer, reply, respond


      用作动词,都可表“回答”,“答复”。


      answer是常用词,后可接letter(回信),question(回答问题),doorbell(开门),telephone(接电话),advertisement(应征广告)等。


      reply较正式,一般只作不及物动词,可与to连用。如:He has replied to my letter.(他回答了我信中提的问题。)


      respond作“回答”解,用得较少,也同to 搭配。如:He quickly responded to the question. (他很快就回答了问题。)


      另外,respond还可表“对……反应”,“响应”。


      33. appreciate, enjoy


      appreciate指对事物有深刻的理解能力并能鉴赏。


      enjoy是一般用语,仅指感官或智力上的满足,“享受”的意味较强。


      34. approve, prove


      approve(1)赞成,同意。如:I don’t approve of wasting time.(我不赞成浪费时间。)


      (2)批准,通过。如:The minister approved the building plan. 部长批准了建筑计划。


      prove和approve词形相似,prove是“证明”,“表明是”等。


      35. argue, debate, dispute


      argue着重“说理”,“论证”,“企图说明”,且后可接that引导的从句。


      debate着重双方各自陈述理由,尤其是“公开地”、“正式地”辩论。如:The subject was hotly debated.


      dispute着重就分歧进行热烈的“争论”,含有“相持不下”或“未得到解决”的意味。如:He disputed with his wife on household expenses.


      36. arise, rise, raise


      arise表无形的东西(如困难,问题等)“出现”,“发生”。


      rise指具体事物的“上升”,“升起”,也是不及物动词。如:The sun rises in the east.(太阳从东边升起。)


      raise为及物动词,“使……上升”,“举起”等。如:He raised his hand.(他举了手。)


      37. assure, ensure, insure


      assure以十分肯定的语气向别人保证某事一定会发生,后需连用人称代词或指人的名词作宾语。


      ensure表普通的“保证”。


      insure表“保险”,有时同ensure可以换用。


      38. awake, wake, waken


      都可作动词。


      awake既可及物,也可不及物,多用于比喻。


      wake常指“睡醒”,多为不及物动词。


      waken多用作及物动词,常指“吵醒”,“惊醒”。


      39. await, wait


      await是及物动词。如:I await your further instructions.


      wait“等”、“等候”,是不及物动词,后常接介词for。如:I will wait for you at the school gate.


      40. award, prize, reward


      award, reward作动词。award意为“授予(奖品,奖金等)”,后面可跟双宾语;reward意为“报酬”,“酬谢”,只能跟人或以人的行为作宾语。


      award, prize, reward作名词时,award常指奖金,奖品;prize多指在竞赛、竞争中获胜所赢得的奖;reward则指为某项劳动或行为所付的酬金。

              

          41. base, basis


      base表事物的下部的底部,多用于具体事物。


      basis多用于比喻,主要指命题的基础。如:His ideas have no basis in reality.(他的意见缺乏现实基础。)


      42. beat, win


      beat表在比赛和战斗中打败对手,后接对手作宾语。


      Win作及物动词时,其宾语为游戏、比赛、战斗、奖金等名词。如:He has won the race.(他赢得了赛跑的胜利。)


      43. beneath, below, under


      beneath表示同表面接触,与on 相对。Below表示“在下面,低于”,与above相对。


      under表示“在……正下方”与over相对。


      44. beside, besides


      beside在……旁边。如:Come and sit beside me.


      besides除……之外。如:I have two other umbrellas besides this one.


      45. big, great, large


      big强调体积,质量,容量和重量大。如:a big box。Big也有抽象意义,指重大的事件或行为。如:a big mistake


      great带感情色彩,多指程度和质量,指具体事物或人时,表“突出”,“引人注目”。如:a great man


      large多指面积,数目或数量大。如:a large population, a large number等。


      46. bloom, blossom


      bloom多指供观赏植物的开花。如:The roses are blooming.


      blossom多指果树等植物的开花。如:The apple trees are blossoming.


      47. borrow, lend


      borrow借入。如:Can I borrow your pen for a moment?


      lend把……借给。如:Can you lend me your bike?


      48. bring, take


      bring带来。如:Bring me some water, please.


      take拿走。如:Shall I take some flowers when I go and see her?


      49. calculate, compute, estimate


      calculate通常指用数学方法进行比较复杂,难度较大的精确计算。如:You can’t expect a schoolboy to calculate distances in astronomy.


      compute常指比较简单的运算。如:It was computed that two thirds of the students in the class passed the examination.


      estimate估计,常指对数量、成本等事先进行判断或估计。如:Some farmers asked the weatherman to estimate next year’s rainfall.


      50. cheat, deceive, trick


      cheat欺骗,常用词,主要指为了自己的利益欺骗人。


      deceive表示隐瞒真相或以假相骗人。如:The boy deceived the teacher by lying.


      trick哄骗,表示耍手段进行欺骗,强调在行骗时使用计策,有时也指并非出于恶意的欺骗。如:Tom cleverly tricked his mother into approval.


      51. childish, childlike


      childish幼稚的。如:It was very childish of him to lose his temper over something so unimportant.


      childlike孩子般天真的。如:When she won the gold medal, there was childlike smile on her face.


      52. choose, pick, select, elect


      choose是一常用词,表一般的“选择”。


      pick通常用于不需要认真权衡,对比就能做出决定。


      select侧重“在同类的许多东西中,进行有斟酌的精选”。


      elect指选举或用其他方法推选人。


      53. cloth, clothing


      cloth布。如:I need three yards of cloth to make a suit.


      clothing衣服(总称)。如:You’d better give all the old clothing away.


      54. complex, complicated


      均可表“复杂”。


      complex为常用词。


      complicated为正式用词,表由于组成部分太多,相互关系太复杂而不能理解,语气很强。


      55. compose, consist, constitute


      compose为常用词,常用被动语态,如用主动语态,主语应用复数形式。如:Twelve men compose a jury.(十二人组成陪审团。)


      consist表一个整体由几个部分组成(只能用主动语态)。如:The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Island.(联合王国是由大不列颠及北爱尔兰组  成。)


      constitute为正式用词,与consist相反,表由哪些部分构成整体。如:Twelve months constitute a year.(一年有十二个月。)


      56. considerable, considerate


      considerable相当多的,可观的。如:He met a considerable amount of trouble.(他遇到了许多麻烦。)


      considerate 考虑周到的,体谅的。如:It was considerate of you not to trouble us.(你真体贴人,不打扰我们。)


      57. consistent, constant, continual, continuous


      consistent一致的,符合的。如:His action is always consistent with his words.


      constant不断的,表示持续和惯常的重现,往往没有变化。如:He attributes his health to his constant exercise.


      continual频频的,不停的,时断时续,中间可有间歇。如:Continual smoking is bad for health.


      continuous不断延伸的,连续不断的,强调中间无间断。如:Everything in the universe undergoes continuous development and change.


      58. crack, crash


      crack(使)破裂,砸开。如:I can crack it, but I can’t break it. (我能把它弄裂,但不能把它弄破。)


      crash摔坏,坠毁。如:The plane crashed shortly after the take-off.(飞机起飞不久就坠毁了。)


      59. crawl, creep


      crawl多指蛇,虫类等身体沿地面或其他表面的动作。如:There is an insect crawling up your back. (有一虫子正在你的背上往上爬。)


      creep多指哺乳动物或人等用四肢爬行的动物偷偷摸摸无声缓慢的前行动作。如:They arrived late and crept into the classroom.(我们迟到了,便悄悄地溜进教室。)


      60. cure, treat


      cure治愈,医治。如:The medicine will cure of your disease.(这药能治好你的病。)


      cure表示治好,treat只表示“给……治病”。


      61. current, present


      均可表“现在”,“目前”。


      current强调在现阶段正在流行,通用,但不一定是最新的。如:current English (当代英语)


      present为常用词,指现在正在通用的,在时间上比current的范围更窄。如:What’s your present address?(你现住址是哪里?)


      62. custom, habit


      均可表习惯。


      custom为正式用词,多指社团或人们的习惯行为方式。


      habit为常用词,多指个人因多次重复而形成做某事的趋势或意愿。如:He has the bad habit of biting his nails.(他有咬手指的坏习惯。)


      63. damage, destroy, harm, ruin


      均可表“破坏”,“损坏”。


      damage一般指部分性的破坏,含可修复使用。


      destroy指十分彻底的毁坏,破坏。如:The whole city was destroyed in the earthquake.(地震中整个城市被毁了。)


      harm多指带来悲痛,产生恶果的伤害,可以是肉体的也可是精神的。如:Doctors say smoking harms our health.(医生说吸烟对身体有害。)


      ruin为正式用词,强调由于自然力或时间的作用而逐渐损坏,用于比喻时也指彻底毁坏名声,期望等。如:She poured water all over my painting and ruined it. (她把水倒在画上,把它毁了。)另外,ruin的复数形式ruins表“废墟”。


      64. decrease, reduce


      decrease多表示逐渐缩小。如:The swelling decreased daily.(肿胀日渐消退。)


      reduce为常用词,使用范围较大,可指尺寸,数量,规模和程度等,也可指地位,经济状况。如:He won’t reduce the rent of the house.(他不愿降低房租。)


      65. dependent, independent


      dependent依赖的,依靠的(on, upon)。如:Success is dependent on your hard work.


      Independent 不依靠的,独立的(of)。如:John was independent of his parents when he was still a child.


      66. desert, dessert


      desert沙漠。如:Have you ever been to a desert?


      Dessert甜食。如:What would you like for dessert, an apple pie or ice-cream?


      67. discover, invent


      discover发现。如:A coal mine has been discovered in that area.


      invent发明,创造。如:A kind of toothbrush has been invented to relieve toothache.


      68. duty, responsibility


      均有“责任”之意,可换用。


      duty意义较广,多指发自内心的道德伦理上的责任感。


      responsibility着重指从道义或法律上对事件之后果负责。如:I took full responsibility for breaking the vase.(我承担打破花瓶的全部责任。)


      69. effective, efficient


      均可表示“有效的”。


      effective常用以指物,强调能产生某种预期的效果。如:effective medicine, effective method等。


      efficient“效率高的”,“有能力的”,用以指人或物,着重有效地利用时间、精力并取得预期效果。如:The German telephone system is highly efficient. (德国的电话系统效率很高。)


      70. economic, economical


      economic经济(学)的。如:the economic doctrines of Ricardo(李嘉图的经济学说)


      economical节约的,节俭的。如:He is economical of money and time.


      71. electric, electrical, electronic


      三词都与电有关


      electric着重于发电的,电动的或导电的。如:electric generator(发电机);electric light(电灯)


      electrical多指本身不产生电,但是与电有关的。如:electrical engineering(电机工程);an electrical transcription(广播唱片)


      electronic 电子的,电子操作的。如:electronic engineering(电子工程学)


      72. emergence, emergency


      emergence是emerge的名词形式。


      Emergency意为“紧急情况”,“突然事件”。


      73. everyday, every day


      everyday每日的,日常的(作定语)。如:This morning exercise has become my everyday routine.


      every day每天(作状语)。如:She gets up early every day.


      74. endure, bear, stand, tolerate, withstand


      都表忍受,忍耐。


      bear忍受,容忍,指忍受使人悲痛、烦恼或痛苦的事情。如:It is hard to bear to be laughed at.(被人取笑是难以忍受的。)


      endure忍耐,书面语,指长时间经受痛苦而不屈服。如:It takes patience to endure hardships. 忍受苦难需要耐力。)


      stand忍受,与bear同义,但较口语化。如:She can’t stand having nothing to do.(没事干,她受不了。)


      tolerate容忍,容许,指自我克制的态度,对于令人反感的事没有任何抗议。如:I can’t tolerate him if he goes on like that. (他如果继续这样下去的话,我决不会容忍他。)


      withstand经受,承受,指顶住外来的压力和攻势。如:They have withstood all test.(他们经受了一切考验。)


      75. error, mistake, fault, shortcoming


      均表“缺点”,“错误”。


      error是通用词,指任何错误,“犯错误”可以说commit /make an error。


      mistake指判断或理解方面,或指因考虑不周而造成的错误,搭配是make a mistake。


      fault表示“过失”,可与error通用,现多用来指缺点,特指缺乏某要素因而不完美。如:There is a fault in this machine.(这台机器有一处毛病。)构成短语 find fault with挑剔,找毛病。


      shortcoming 缺点,可指人或事物的本质上不足之处(常用复数)。如:In spite of his shortcomings, I still like him.(尽管他缺点多,我仍然喜欢他。)


      76. especially, particularly, specially


      均可表“特别地”。


      especially一般表示某事物在意义、程度、重要性性超过其他事物。如:I love Italy, especially in summer.(我喜欢意大利,尤其在夏天。)


      particularly往往着重说明与同类事物不同的个别事物。如:The visitors admired his paintings, but particularly the portrait of his daughter.(来访者赞赏他所有的绘画,特别是他女儿的画像。)


      specially 多表示“专门地”,“为特别目的的地”,如表“不寻常”,“过分”等,可与especially通用。如:I made chocolate cake specially for you.(我特地为你做了巧克力蛋糕。)


      77. exchange, replace, substitute


      均含有“换”之意。


      exchange指“互相交换”。


      replace的含义为“替换”,“取代”。如:George has replaced Edward as captain of the team.(乔石治已接替爱德华担任队长。)


      substitute则表示“用……代替”。如:We substitute nylon for cotton.(我们用尼龙代替了棉花。)


      78. fall, descend


      都可表向下运动。


      fall指由于重力突然从高处落下或因为失去平衡而跌倒。如:She slipped and fell down.(她滑了一下摔倒了。)


      descend多指沿着斜面而缓慢向下移动。如:He descended the hill.(他下山了。)


      79. fame, honor, reputation


      都可表名声。


      fame是常用词,一般指好的名声。如:He was not anxious for fame.(他并不渴望成名。)


      honor荣誉,尊敬,指受到公众崇敬的荣誉和光荣。如:This is an honor more than I can deserve.(这光荣我受之有愧。)


      reputation名誉,指公众对某人的看法,可好可坏。如:He has a reputation for laziness.(他的懒惰出了名。)


      80. fell, fall


      fell砍伐(树木)。如:They are felling the trees.(他们在砍树。)


      fell也可作fall的过去式;fell作“砍伐”时,它的过去式,过去分词分别为felled, felled.


      81. formally, formerly


      formally正式地。如:We were required to dress formally for the party.


      formerly从前。如:Formerly he worked in a factory, but now he is a teacher.


      82. frank, honest, sincere


      都与坦率有关。


      frank直率的,坦白的,着重表达自己的情感和想法时没有保留。如:To be frank with you, I do not know the answer myself.(老实说,我自己也不知道答案。)


      honest诚实的,正直的,指遵守正直等道德准则。如:We want your honest opinion, not empty compliments.(我们需要你的诚心恳的意见,而不是空洞的恭维。)


      Sincere诚挚的,诚恳的,强调出自内心的真心实意。如:Please accept this as a token of my sincere gratitude.(请接受这份表示我真诚感谢的礼物。)


      83. gaze, stare, glance, glimpse


      都与“看”有关。


      gaze“凝视”,强调由于惊奇、兴趣,目不转睛地注视。


      Stare强调由于好奇、害怕或无意地睁大眼睛盯着看看。


      glare“怒视”,是凶狠地含有威胁地盯着看。


      glimpse“一瞥”,是短暂而急促地看,含有意地匆匆地看一眼,现多用作名词。


      [注意]一般表示“看”的单词大多同at搭配构成短,但glimpse却有catch (have) a glimpse of这一搭配。


      84. genius, gift, talent


      都有天才之意。


      genius天才,是这三词中程度最高的词。如:Shakespeare was a man of great genius.


      gift天赋,比“天才”的意义要弱一点,可用复数。如:He is a man of many gifts.(他多才多艺。)


      talent才能,一般不用复数,指通过学习和勤奋掌握的本领、技术和其他的活动能力。如:As a novelist, he shows great talent in characterization.(作为小说家,他在描写人物方面显出很大的才能。)


      85. get, achieve, acquire, attain, gain, obtain


      均可表“获得”。


      get用得最广,可指以各种方式获得各种东西。如:Where can I get enough information?(我从哪儿能得到足够的资料?)


      achieve多指克服困难后取得胜利,成功,强调“得到”这一结果。如:He achieved his ambition in the end.(他最终实现了他的抱负。)


      acquire指通过本身的努力逐渐获得知识、能力和荣誉等。如:acquire knowledge(获得知识)。


      attain为正式用词,多用于庄重场合,主要指通过努力达到重要目的或得到珍贵的东西。如:The scientist attained great fame by a new discovery.(那科学家由于一次新发现而出了名。)


      gain多指付出极大努力后获得或赢得给自己带来优势的东西。如:They gained the victory after a bloody battle.(浴血奋战后他们赢得了胜利。)


      obtain多指凭努力或恳求得到急需或很想得到的东西。如:Howard had failed to obtain a scholarship.(霍华德没能得到奖学金。)


      86. grasp, seize, snatch


      都有“抓”的意思。


      grasp为常用词,是用适度的力量抓牢。


      seize是突然用力抓住。


      snatch“攫取”,指出其不意地,突然一把抓住并拿向自己。


      87. hanged, hung


      hang, hanged, hanged吊死。如:He hanged himself when he failed.


      Hang, hung, hung悬挂。如:His pictures were hung in the museum.


      88. haste, hurry, speed


      都与速度有关。


      haste急速,急忙,多指人的动作迅速和匆忙。如:I felt no haste to depart.(我不急着走。)


      hurry急忙,匆忙,常表示混乱,焦急和忙乱的意思。如:I forgot to pay my bill in my hurry.


      Speed迅速,快,不暗示忙乱或焦急。如:More haste, less speed.(欲速则不达。)


      89. hard, hardly


      hard努力地。如:Take it easy. You’ve been working too hard.


      hardly几乎不,简直不。如:The children can hardly wait to hear the news.


      90. home, house


      home家。如:East or west, home is best.


      House房子,住宅。如:Our new house is quite near the station.


      91. equal, equivalent, identical, same


      皆含相同,相等之意。


      equal相同的,相等的,特指“数量,价值等”相同。如:Their ages are equal.


      equivalent相等的,特指“价值,效力,意义”等相同的。如:This sentence is equivalent to that.


      identical相同的,相等的,侧重于某一细节上完全相同。如:She wore the identical dress on both occasions.


      identical相同的,相等的,侧重于某一细节上完全相同。如:She wore the identical dress on both occasion.(她在两种场合穿同样的衣服。)


      same相同的,表示在质量、类型、外表或意义上相同,而实际上有差异。如:He is of about the same age as you.


      92. imaginable, imaginary, imaginative


      都是与想象有关的形容词。


      imaginable可以想象得到的。如:This is the only solution imaginable.(这是惟一想得出的解决办法。)


      imaginary假想的,虚构的。如:an imaginary character in a story(故事里的虚构人物)


      imaginative富于想象力力的。如:an imaginative artist(想像力丰定的艺术家)


      93. indifferent, different


      indifferent冷漠的,不关心的,同to搭配。如:He was indifferent to his personal appearance.(他从前不注意自己的外表。)


      different跟……不一样,同from搭配。如:This book is different from that one.(这本书跟那本不一样。)


      94. industrial, industrious


      industrial工业的,产业的。如:Italy is becoming an industrial nation.(意大利逐步成为工业国。)


      industrious勤劳的,勤奋的。如:He is an industrious student.(他是个用功的学生。)


      95. influence, effect


      都有“影响”之意。


      influence可作动词、名词,指对某人的思想行为、性格等产生影响。如:She was influenced by her middle school teachers.(她受中学时的老师影响。)


      effect用作动词意为“造成”,“产生”,用作名词强调由于影响而产生特殊效果。如:The effects of the medicine are very good.(药效很好。)


      96. intention, idea, purpose


      intention主要指个人心里产生的做某事欲望或得到某物的想法,常见的搭配是have the intention of doing something.


      Idea指“意见”,“见解”。


      Purpose意为“目的”,着重于实现目的的决心和待付出的努力。如:For what purpose do you learn English?(你学英文的目的是什么?)


      97. last, latest, final, ultimate


      last最后的,与first相对,还可指“上一次的”。如:My seat is in the last row.


      latest最近的,指时间上。如:the latest news(最新消息)


      final最后的,指在一系列的事物中是最后的,而且是结论性的,决定性的。如:The judgment has become final.(这已是最后的判断。)


      ultimate 最终的,最后的,用于正式场合,含有最高的和最有权威的结果。如:He never considered the ultimate result of his action.(他从未考虑其行为的后果。)


      98. lay, lie


      lay放,搁。如:Lay the book on the desk.(把书放在桌上。)


      lie(躺)的过去式和过去分词分别为lay, lain; lie(说谎)的过去式和过去分词为lied, lied; lay作动词时的过去式和过去分词是laid, laid。


      99. literal, literary, literate


      literal文字上的,字面的。如:a literal interpretation of a passage(对一段文章的字面解释)


      literary文学的。如:literary works(文学作品)


      literary有文化的(反义词是illiterate),如:people applying for the job should be computer literate.(申请这份工作的人应会使用电脑。)


      100.manufacture, make, produce


      manufacture制造,加工,较正式,通常表示把原料经过一定程度制成产品,多指使用机器大批生产。如:This textile factory manufactures cloth of good quality.(这家纺织厂生产优质布料。)


      make做,制造,最常用词,使用较广泛。如:She can make cakes.


      Produce生产,制造,着重产品的数量。如:The chemical works produced 5,000 tons of chemical fertilizer last year.(这家化工厂去年生产了5000吨化肥。)


      101.much, very


      都可表示“很”。


      much用来修饰动词意义很强的过去分词;very一般修饰形容词或已失去动作意义的过去分词。


      一些只作表语的形容词,一般多用much修饰。


      very much是much的加强语,因此,能用much的地方,都能用very much。


      修饰形容词原级用very,修饰比较级用much。


      much可修饰名词,very不能。


      102.neglect, overlook, ignore


      neglect可以是有意,也可以是无意地“忽略”或“忽视”应该做的事。如:If others neglect their duty to you, be sure that you perform yours to them. (即使他人忽略了履行对你的义务,你也要履行你对他们的义务。)


      overlook指由于粗心大意,匆忙而“看漏”或“忽略”某东西或某事实。如:His services have been overlooked by his employers.(他的工作一直没有得到雇主的重视。)


      ignore不顾,不理,常指有意地不理,不加分析地拒绝考虑。如:She saw him coming but she ignored him.


      103.happen, occur, take place


      均表示“发生”。


      happen是常用词,指偶然或按计划的发生。如:When did the explosion happen?(爆炸什么时候发生?)


      occur是较正式的用词,主要用以指无计划的发生。


      take place多表示情况或事情按计划发生。如:The story took place in 1917.(故事发生在1917年。)


      104.chance, opportunity, occasion


      chance多指偶然的机会,意外的机会,带有侥幸的意味。如:Even so, it was a lucky chance that he could do it.(即使如此,那也是他凭着侥幸才做到这点。)


      opportunity主要指能够去做某事,尤其是达到自己目的,实现某种愿望的好机会。如:You should make the most of your opportunities of seeing the country and learning the language.(你应该尽量利用你的机会去看看这个国家,学习它的语言。)


      occasion主要指“时机”,“场合”,也含有“机会”的意思。如:The flags are hung out on the occasion of the National Day.(每逢国庆节,国旗都悬持出来了。)


      105.persist, insist


      persist坚持,后面常接介词in。如:He persisted in carrying on his work in spite of great fatigue.(他虽然疲倦极了,可仍坚持工作。)


      insist坚持,后面接介词on,也可直接连用that引导的名词从句。如:He insisted on my going there with him. (He insisted that I should go there with him.)


      106.preserve, conserve, reserve


      preserve坚持,后面常接介词in。如:The ship is equipped with special refrigerating devices to preserve food for the whole voyage.(船上设有特殊冷藏设备,在整个航程中保存食物。)


      conserve保存,储藏,强调采取措施精心保护某物,防止不必要的浪费,损失或变化。如:He is conserving his energy for the last twenty-meter dash.(他正在为最后20米冲刺保存实力。)


      reserve留存(在资金,人力,原料等),保留(权力等)。如:Reserve enough money for your home fare.(留足你回家的路费。)


      107.probable, possible, likely


      probable很可能的,大概的,语气较possible强。如:It is probable that the cost will be greater than we think.(花费很可能比我们料想的要多。)


      possible强调客观上可能性,但常带有“实际可能性很小”的暗示。如:It’s possible, though not probable, that he will accept these terms. (他有可能接受这些条件,但希望很小。)


      likely暗示从表面迹象来判断“有可能的”。如:It is likely that he will come.(他多半会来。)


      108.purpose, goal, aim, end, object


      purpose目的,意图,比较确定,多指采取坚决的行动去达到目的。如:The tutor explained the purpose of the exercise.(导师说明了该练习的目的。)


      goal指经过仔细考虑而选中的比较大的目标,常需要努力或克服困难才能达到的目的。如:The goal of her desire is to be a singer.(她渴望成为一名歌唱家。)


      aim常指短期目标,往往比较具体,也比较实际。如:My first aim is to receive a complete and good education.(我的第一个目标是接受完整和良好的教育。)


      end目标,目的,较正式。如:My chief end is to serve my country and my people.(我的首要目标是为国为民服务。)


      object指较明确具体的单个目标,往往出于直接的需要和愿望。如:What is the object of your visit?(你访问的目的是什么?)


      109.respectable, respected, respectful, respective


      都是形容词。


      respectable可尊敬的,值得尊重的。如:His parents were poor but respectable.(他父母虽穷却令人尊敬。)


      respected表示受人尊敬的,可用于对年长的人,权威性的意见等。


      respectful指“充满敬意的”,是主动性的尊重他人。如:The students were very respectful towards the great man.(这些学生对这位伟人十分敬仰。)


      respective表“各自分别的”,修饰名词时,名词一般用复数。如:They went back to their respective houses.(他们回了各自的家。)


      110.round, around


      round作副词时,同around意思相近,规范用法应区别动态和静态。 Round用于圆周运动或测量,around用于指遍及表面或中心附近。如:The spaceship traveled round the world in 40 minutes. They planted trees around the lawn.


      around用于指遍及表面或中心附近。如:The spaceship traveled round the world in 40 minutes. They planted trees around the lawn.


      111.rouse, arouse


      rouse表“激起”,语气比arouse强,常有“积极行动”的意思。


      arouse表“引起”,动作意味较弱,在表“唤起”意义时,可用rouse换用。


      112.say, speak, talk, tell


      say着重所说的话,可用作及物动词,带宾语从句。


      Speak着重开口发声,不着重所说的内容,一般作不及物动词,用作及物动词,宾语只能是某种语言等少数几个名词,不能接that从句。


      Talk表示通过谈话方式交换意见、思想、消息等,一般只作不及物动词。


      Tell表示告诉,有时兼含“嘱咐”,“命令”等。Tell the truth说真话,tell a lie说谎,tell a story讲故事等为固定搭配。Tell是及物动词,但其后不跟that从句。


      113.senseless, sensible, sensitive


      senseless愚蠢的(常作定语);无知觉的(常作表语)。


      Sensible懂事的,明智的。如:He is a sensible child.(他是个懂事的孩子。)


      Sensitive有感觉的,敏感的。如:Eyes are very sensitive to light.(眼睛对光敏感。)


      114.shake, shiver, tremble


      shake颤抖,颤动,指任何短促而急促的摇动,有时喻指对决心,信念的动摇。如:He was shaking with fear.(他吓得发抖。) Nothing can shake our determination.(什么也动摇不了我们的决心。)    


      shiver战栗,寒战,指因寒冷,恐惧或体弱多病而引起的抖动。如:The old man stood shivering in the wind-swept street.(这位老人站在寒风凛冽的街上发抖。)


      tremble颤抖,发抖,指因寒冷、情绪变化、体弱多病而不由自主轻微地抖动。如:A poor old woman stood at the corner, trembling with age.(一位可怜的老妇人站在拐角处,因年老而不断哆嗦。)


      115.small, little


      small侧重尺度,面积,数字等,在指具体事物小时,有时有轻视,鄙视,贬低的意味,在表示不可数名词的数量时,一般说a small amount of。


      little指具体事物小时,常有赞赏,爱惜等意味,也可用来指不可数的量。


      116.solve, answer, resolve


      solve解决,解答。如:He solved all the problems in the exam.(他解出了所有试题。)solve的名词为solution,一般同to搭配。如:a solution to the problem


      answer 表“回答”,后面的宾语应是questions。


      resolve表“解决”,“解答”是个正式用词。如:Have you resolved the problem yet?(你把问题解决了吗?)resolve还有“决定”,“下决心”等意思。


      117.sometimes, some time, sometime, some times


      词形相近,但意义和用法不同。


      sometimes有时。如:I sometimes play tennis.(我有时打网球。)


      some times有几次。如:I have been to the Great Wall for some times.(我去长城有好几次了。)


      sometime某个时候,指过去或将来的不确定时间。如:I will buy a car sometime in the future.(将来我会买车的。)


      some time一段时间。如:I have been a teacher for some time.(我当老师已有些年头了。)


      118.submit, surrender, yield


      都有“让步,屈服”之意。


      submit表示“甘心忍受”,作及物动词时,宾语为反身代词,但一般为不及物动词,后接介词to 。


      surrender“投降”,强调“被迫投降,压力很大”,是不及物动词,后接介词to;用作及物动词时,表因战败或被迫“交出”,“放弃”某些事物。


      yield“投降”,与surrender 大致同义,但是指“温和的让步”。


      119.sway, swing


      sway和swing同义。


      sway一般表示物体的下端固定,上端“摇动”。如:The sailboat swayed on the stormy sea.(帆船在惊涛骇浪的大海中摇晃。)


      swing多表示物体的上端固定,下端“摆动”。如:The pendulum swings.(钟摆摆动。)


      120.army, force, troop


      army军队,着重指军队这个整体,包括陆海空三军。当与navy和air force并列使用时,则指陆军。如:We will have not only a powerful army but also a powerful air force and a powerful navy.(我们不但要有强大的陆军,而且要有强大的空军和海军。)


      force军队,部队,着重指武力,常用复数。如:Forces were sent out to stop the conflict.派出武装部队制止这场冲突。


      troop部队,着重指构成军队的士兵成员,常用复数。如:They sent the troops to the front.他们把军队派往前线。


      121.free, vacant, empty


      free空的,指清除了或缺少了某物,与of 或from连用。如:She is free from anxiety.(她无忧无虑。)She is free of him.(她摆脱了他。)


      empty空的,指里面什么东西都没有。如:The case is empty.(这是个空箱子。)


      vacant空闲的,指地方没有被占用。如:One day, man can make full use of vacant space.(将来,人们会充分利用浩瀚的天空。)


      empty,vacant和相同的名词连用时,含义不同。如an empty house指房子里既无家具也无人,空荡荡的。而a vacant house指房子没有被人占用,里面可有家具,也可无家具。


      122.pay, salary, wage


      pay薪金,泛指对付出劳动给予的报酬,不分发放对象,只用单数,尤指军队的军饷。如:They are asking for equal pay for equal work.他们要求同工同酬。


      Salary工资,指按月或年支付给脑力劳动者的工资。如:The family lives on his salary.(全家人靠他的工资生活。)


      Wage工资,指定期支付给体力劳动者或临时工的工资,常用复数。如:He works at wages of ten dollars a week.(他每周工资10美元。)


      123.cry, sob, weep


      cry哭,普通用语,常指出声地哭。如:The little girl cried herself to sleep.(小女孩哭着睡着了。)


      sob抽泣,呜咽:She sobbed herself to sleep.(她啜泣着入睡了。)


      weep哭泣,书面语,常指小声或无声地哭泣,有时可与cry通用。如:She wept at the sad news.(听到这不幸的消息,她哭了。)


      124.worth, worthless, worthwhile, worthy


      worth值……钱,值得……的。如:This house is worth a lot of money.(这房值很多钱。)The radio program is worth listening to. (这广播节目值得听。)


      worthless无价值的,无用的(可作定语和表语,无比较级)。如:These stamps are worthless.(这些邮票无价值。)Don’t read worthless books.(不要读些没用的书。)


      worthwhile值得的(可作定语和表语)。如:That is a worthwhile program.(那是一个值得听的节目。)So few movies are worthwhile nowadays.(当今有价值的电影很少。)


      worthy(1)有价值的,可尊敬的(常作定语)。如:The teacher was a worthy man.(那位老师是可尊敬的人。)(2)值得的(常作表语)。如:The man is worthy of praise.(这人值得称赞。)它的动词句式是be worthy to be done (be worth doing).


      125.zone, district, area, region, belt


      zone地带,地区,区域,指某一特定的地方或区域。如:Most of China is in the temperate zone.(中国的大部分地区在温带。)


      district区,行政区,指一国家或城市按行政区的划分。如:the economic development district(经济开放区)


      area面积,范围,一般用语,没有明确的外围界限,也可指占地面积。如:The factory covers an area of 500 mu.(这工厂占地50亩。)


      region地区,指较大范围内的区域,一般按自然条件和自身特点划分。如:an autonomous  region(自治区)


      belt地带,通常指狭长的地带。如:The northern part of the country is usually regarded as the wheat belt.(这国家的北部通常被看作小麦种植地带。)